shiboken绑定C++供python使用

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C++类函数封装给python调用,大致分为三个部分,第一部分是把我们的C++类函数等封装成一个dll,即动态库。第二部分是生成一个绑定代码,就是用shiboken2根据我们需要封装暴露的文件,生成pythonC++代码。然后第三部分,就是根据第一和第二部分生成的库和代码,进一步封装成py库。然后python文件直接可以调用该库。具体代码如下,源码用的是python的官方源码。主要讲解每个部分的使用。

源码:
------------------icecream.cpp------------------------------------
#include "icecream.h"

Icecream::Icecream(const std::string &flavor) : m_flavor(flavor) {}

Icecream::~Icecream() {}

const std::string Icecream::getFlavor()
{
    return m_flavor;
}

Icecream *Icecream::clone()
{
    return new Icecream(*this);
}
-------------------------------------------icecream.h------------------------------------------------------

#ifndef ICECREAM_H
#define ICECREAM_H

#include

#include "macros.h"

class BINDINGS_API Icecream
{
public:
    Icecream(const std::string &flavor);
    virtual Icecream *clone();
    virtual ~Icecream();
    virtual const std::string getFlavor();

private:
    std::string m_flavor;
};


#endif // ICECREAM_H
--------------------------------------------truck.cpp------------------------------------------------------

#include
#include

#include "truck.h"

Truck::Truck(bool leaveOnDestruction) : m_leaveOnDestruction(leaveOnDestruction) {}

Truck::Truck(const Truck &other)
{
    for (size_t i = 0; i < other.m_flavors.size(); ++i) {
        addIcecreamFlavor(other.m_flavors[i]->clone());
    }
}

Truck &Truck::operator=(const Truck &other)
{
    if (this != &other) {
        clearFlavors();
        for (size_t i = 0; i < other.m_flavors.size(); ++i) {
            addIcecreamFlavor(other.m_flavors[i]->clone());
        }
    }
    return *this;
}

Truck::~Truck()
{
    if (m_leaveOnDestruction)
        leave();
    clearFlavors();
}

void Truck::addIcecreamFlavor(Icecream *icecream)
{
    m_flavors.push_back(icecream);
}

void Truck::printAvailableFlavors() const
{
    std::cout << "It sells the following flavors: \n";
    for (size_t i = 0; i < m_flavors.size(); ++ i) {
        std::cout << "  * "  << m_flavors[i]->getFlavor() << '\n';
    }
    std::cout << '\n';
}

void Truck::arrive() const
{
    std::cout << m_arrivalMessage;
}

void Truck::leave() const
{
    std::cout << "The truck left the neighborhood.\n";
}

void Truck::setLeaveOnDestruction(bool value)
{
    m_leaveOnDestruction = value;
}

void Truck::setArrivalMessage(const std::string &message)
{
    m_arrivalMessage = message;
}

bool Truck::deliver() const
{
    std::random_device rd;
    std::mt19937 mt(rd());
    std::uniform_int_distribution dist(1, 2);

    std::cout << "The truck started delivering icecream to all the kids in the neighborhood.\n";
    bool result = false;

    if (dist(mt) == 2)
        result = true;

    return result;
}

void Truck::clearFlavors()
{
    for (size_t i = 0; i < m_flavors.size(); ++i) {
        delete m_flavors[i];
    }
    m_flavors.clear();
}

----------------------------------------------truck.h----------------------------------------------------
#ifndef TRUCK_H
#define TRUCK_H

#include

#include "icecream.h"
#include "macros.h"

class BINDINGS_API Truck {
public:
    Truck(bool leaveOnDestruction = false);
    Truck(const Truck &other);
    Truck& operator=(const Truck &other);
    ~Truck();

    void addIcecreamFlavor(Icecream *icecream);
    void printAvailableFlavors() const;

    bool deliver() const;
    void arrive() const;
    void leave() const;

    void setLeaveOnDestruction(bool value);
    void setArrivalMessage(const std::string &message);

private:
    void clearFlavors();

    bool m_leaveOnDestruction = false;
    std::string m_arrivalMessage = "A new icecream truck has arrived!\n";
    std::vector m_flavors;
};

#endif // TRUCK_H
------------------------------------------bindings.h-----------------------------------------------------

#ifndef BINDINGS_H
#define BINDINGS_H

#include "icecream.h"
#include "truck.h"

#endif // BINDINGS_H
------------------------------------------------macros.h------------------------------------------------

#ifndef MACROS_H
#define MACROS_H

#if defined _WIN32 || defined __CYGWIN__
    // Export symbols when creating .dll and .lib, and import them when using .lib.
    #if BINDINGS_BUILD
        #define BINDINGS_API __declspec(dllexport)
    #else
        #define BINDINGS_API __declspec(dllimport)
    #endif
    // Disable warnings about exporting STL types being a bad idea. Don't use this in production
    // code.
    #pragma warning( disable : 4251 )
#else
    #define BINDINGS_API
#endif

#endif // MACROS_H
------------------------------------------bindings.xml------------------------------------------------

   
   

   
       
       
           
               
           

       

   

   
       
       
           
               
           

       

   

--------------------------------以上为源码----------------------------------------------------
编译使用cmake:
CMakeLists.txt如下,(这是重点)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.1)
cmake_policy(VERSION 3.1)

# Enable policy to not use RPATH settings for install_name on macOS.
if(POLICY CMP0068)
  cmake_policy(SET CMP0068 NEW)
endif()

# Consider changing the project name to something relevant for you.
project(SampleBinding)


# ================================ General configuration ======================================

# Set CPP standard to C++11 minimum.
set(CMAKE_CXX_STANDARD 11)

# The sample library for which we will create bindings. You can change the name to something
# relevant for your project.
set(sample_library "libuniverse")
#设置一个库的名称,sample_library相当libuniverse,为了下面名称统一,方便修改

# The name of the generated bindings module (as imported in Python). You can change the name
# to something relevant for your project.
set(bindings_library "Universe")

# The header file with all the types and functions for which bindings will be generated.
# Usually it simply includes other headers of the library you are creating bindings for.
set(wrapped_header ${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR}/bindings.h)
#设置绑定文件,都是用一个变量来代替文件,不懂百度cmake  set.

# The typesystem xml file which defines the relationships between the C++ types / functions
# and the corresponding Python equivalents.
set(typesystem_file ${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR}/bindings.xml)

# Specify which C++ files will be generated by shiboken. This includes the module wrapper
# and a '.cpp' file per C++ type. These are needed for generating the module shared
# library.
set(generated_sources
    ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/${bindings_library}/universe_module_wrapper.cpp
    ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/${bindings_library}/icecream_wrapper.cpp
    ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/${bindings_library}/truck_wrapper.cpp)
#这个是我们生产py库的时候需要的源文件,也就是用第二部分shiboken2生成

# ================================== Shiboken detection ======================================
# Use provided python interpreter if given.
if(NOT python_interpreter)
    find_program(python_interpreter "python")
endif()
message(STATUS "Using python interpreter: ${python_interpreter}")

# Macro to get various pyside / python include / link flags and paths.
# Uses the not entirely supported utils/pyside2_config.py file.
macro(pyside2_config option output_var)
    if(${ARGC} GREATER 2)
        set(is_list ${ARGV2})
    else()
        set(is_list "")
    endif()

    execute_process(
      COMMAND ${python_interpreter} "${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR}/../utils/pyside2_config.py"
              ${option}
      OUTPUT_VARIABLE ${output_var}
      OUTPUT_STRIP_TRAILING_WHITESPACE)

    if ("${${output_var}}" STREQUAL "")
        message(FATAL_ERROR "Error: Calling pyside2_config.py ${option} returned no output.")
    endif()
    if(is_list)
        string (REPLACE " " ";" ${output_var} "${${output_var}}")
    endif()
endmacro()

# Query for the shiboken generator path, Python path, include paths and linker flags.
pyside2_config(--shiboken2-module-path shiboken2_module_path)
pyside2_config(--shiboken2-generator-path shiboken2_generator_path)
pyside2_config(--python-include-path python_include_dir)
pyside2_config(--shiboken2-generator-include-path shiboken_include_dir 1)
pyside2_config(--shiboken2-module-shared-libraries-cmake shiboken_shared_libraries 0)
pyside2_config(--python-link-flags-cmake python_linking_data 0)

set(shiboken_path "${shiboken2_generator_path}/shiboken2${CMAKE_EXECUTABLE_SUFFIX}")
if(NOT EXISTS ${shiboken_path})
    message(FATAL_ERROR "Shiboken executable not found at path: ${shiboken_path}")
endif()

#以上这些只是为了找出一个库和一些需要包含的路径,理论上可以自己直接设置,
# ==================================== RPATH configuration ====================================


# =============================================================================================
# !!! (The section below is deployment related, so in a real world application you will want to
# take care of this properly with some custom script or tool).
# =============================================================================================
# Enable rpaths so that the built shared libraries find their dependencies.
set(CMAKE_SKIP_BUILD_RPATH FALSE)
set(CMAKE_BUILD_WITH_INSTALL_RPATH TRUE)
set(CMAKE_INSTALL_RPATH ${shiboken2_module_path} ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR})
set(CMAKE_INSTALL_RPATH_USE_LINK_PATH TRUE)
# =============================================================================================
# !!! End of dubious section.
# =============================================================================================


# =============================== CMake target - sample_library ===============================


# Define the sample shared library for which we will create bindings.
set(${sample_library}_sources icecream.cpp truck.cpp)#设置动态库需要的源文件
add_library(${sample_library} SHARED ${${sample_library}_sources})#生成一个动态库
set_property(TARGET ${sample_library} PROPERTY PREFIX "")

# Needed mostly on Windows to export symbols, and create a .lib file, otherwise the binding
# library can't link to the sample library.
target_compile_definitions(${sample_library} PRIVATE BINDINGS_BUILD)
#宏定义变量BINDINGS_BUILD,因为封装库导出需要


# ====================== Shiboken target for generating binding C++ files  ====================

#下面是设置生成器的路径
# Set up the options to pass to shiboken.
set(shiboken_options --generator-set=shiboken --enable-parent-ctor-heuristic
    --enable-return-value-heuristic --use-isnull-as-nb_nonzero
    --avoid-protected-hack
    -I${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR}
    -T${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR}
    --output-directory=${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}
    )

set(generated_sources_dependencies ${wrapped_header} ${typesystem_file})

# Add custom target to run shiboken to generate the binding cpp files.
add_custom_command(OUTPUT ${generated_sources}
                    COMMAND ${shiboken_path}
                    ${shiboken_options} ${wrapped_header} ${typesystem_file}
                    DEPENDS ${generated_sources_dependencies}
                    IMPLICIT_DEPENDS CXX ${wrapped_header}
                    WORKING_DIRECTORY ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}
                    COMMENT "Running generator for ${typesystem_file}.")


# =============================== CMake target - bindings_library =============================


# Set the cpp files which will be used for the bindings library.
set(${bindings_library}_sources ${generated_sources})

# Define and build the bindings library.
add_library(${bindings_library} MODULE ${${bindings_library}_sources})

# Apply relevant include and link flags.
target_include_directories(${bindings_library} PRIVATE ${python_include_dir})
target_include_directories(${bindings_library} PRIVATE ${shiboken_include_dir})
target_include_directories(${bindings_library} PRIVATE ${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR})

target_link_libraries(${bindings_library} PRIVATE ${shiboken_shared_libraries})
target_link_libraries(${bindings_library} PRIVATE ${sample_library})

# Adjust the name of generated module.
set_property(TARGET ${bindings_library} PROPERTY PREFIX "")
set_property(TARGET ${bindings_library} PROPERTY OUTPUT_NAME
             "${bindings_library}${PYTHON_EXTENSION_SUFFIX}")
if(WIN32)
    set_property(TARGET ${bindings_library} PROPERTY SUFFIX ".pyd")
endif()

# Make sure the linker doesn't complain about not finding Python symbols on macOS.
if(APPLE)
  set_target_properties(${bindings_library} PROPERTIES LINK_FLAGS "-undefined dynamic_lookup")
endif(APPLE)

# Find and link to the python import library only on Windows.
# On Linux and macOS, the undefined symbols will get resolved by the dynamic linker
# (the symbols will be picked up in the Python executable).
if (WIN32)
    list(GET python_linking_data 0 python_libdir)
    list(GET python_linking_data 1 python_lib)
    find_library(python_link_flags ${python_lib} PATHS ${python_libdir} HINTS ${python_libdir})
    target_link_libraries(${bindings_library} PRIVATE ${python_link_flags})
endif()


# ================================= Dubious deployment section ================================


if(WIN32)
    # =========================================================================================
    # !!! (The section below is deployment related, so in a real world application you will
    # want to take care of this properly (this is simply to eliminate errors that users usually
    # encounter.
    # =========================================================================================
    # Circumvent some "#pragma comment(lib)"s in "include/pyconfig.h" which might force to link
    # against a wrong python shared library.

    set(python_versions_list 3 32 33 34 35 36 37 38)
    set(python_additional_link_flags "")
    foreach(ver ${python_versions_list})
        set(python_additional_link_flags
            "${python_additional_link_flags} /NODEFAULTLIB:\"python${ver}_d.lib\"")
        set(python_additional_link_flags
            "${python_additional_link_flags} /NODEFAULTLIB:\"python${ver}.lib\"")
    endforeach()

    set_target_properties(${bindings_library}
                           PROPERTIES LINK_FLAGS "${python_additional_link_flags}")

    # Add custom target to hard-link shiboken shared libraries into the build folder, so that
    # the user doesn't have to set the PATH manually to point to the PySide2 package.
    foreach(library_path ${shiboken_shared_libraries})
        string(REGEX REPLACE ".lib$" ".dll" library_path ${library_path})
        get_filename_component(base_name ${library_path} NAME)
        file(TO_NATIVE_PATH ${library_path} source_path)
        file(TO_NATIVE_PATH "${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/${base_name}" dest_path)
        add_custom_command(OUTPUT "${base_name}"
                            COMMAND mklink /H "${dest_path}" "${source_path}"
                            DEPENDS ${library_path}
                            WORKING_DIRECTORY ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}
                            COMMENT "Creating hardlink to shiboken shared library ${base_name}")

        # Fake target that depends on the previous one, but has special ALL keyword, which means
        # it will always be executed.
        add_custom_target("fake_${base_name}" ALL DEPENDS ${base_name})
    endforeach()
    # =========================================================================================
    # !!! End of dubious section.
    # =========================================================================================
endif()

# =============================================================================================
# !!! (The section below is deployment related, so in a real world application you will want to
# take care of this properly with some custom script or tool).
# =============================================================================================
# Install the library and the bindings module into the source folder near the main.py file, so
# that the Python interpeter successfully imports the used module.
install(TARGETS ${bindings_library} ${sample_library}
        LIBRARY DESTINATION ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}
        RUNTIME DESTINATION ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}
        )
# =============================================================================================
# !!! End of dubious section.
# =============================================================================================
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
怎么执行;把上面的文件放在一个文件夹上,然后在该文件夹上新建一个空的文件夹build,进入到build文件夹下,打开cmd命令行。然后cmake -H.. -B. -G "NMake Makefiles" -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release
生成一个makefile,继续执行nmake,就能生成我们需要的库,把生成的库一个.dll,一个.pyd,可能还有其余pyside,shiboken放一起,或者你设置的环境变量都能找到也没问题。

然后写一个py调用
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
from __future__ import print_function

"""An example showcasing how to use bindings for a custom non-Qt C++ library"""

from Universe import Icecream, Truck

class VanillaChocolateIcecream(Icecream):
    def __init__(self, flavor=""):
        super(VanillaChocolateIcecream, self).__init__(flavor)

    def clone(self):
        return VanillaChocolateIcecream(self.getFlavor())

    def getFlavor(self):
        return "vanilla sprinked with chocolate"

class VanillaChocolateCherryIcecream(VanillaChocolateIcecream):
    def __init__(self, flavor=""):
        super(VanillaChocolateIcecream, self).__init__(flavor)

    def clone(self):
        return VanillaChocolateCherryIcecream(self.getFlavor())

    def getFlavor(self):
        base_flavor = super(VanillaChocolateCherryIcecream, self).getFlavor()
        return base_flavor + " and a cherry"

if __name__ == '__main__':
    leave_on_destruction = True
    truck = Truck(leave_on_destruction)

    flavors = ["vanilla", "chocolate", "strawberry"]
    for f in flavors:
        icecream = Icecream(f)
        truck.addIcecreamFlavor(icecream)

    truck.addIcecreamFlavor(VanillaChocolateIcecream())
    truck.addIcecreamFlavor(VanillaChocolateCherryIcecream())

    truck.arrive()
    truck.printAvailableFlavors()
    result = truck.deliver()

    if result:
        print("All the kids got some icecream!")
    else:
        print("Aww, someone didn't get the flavor they wanted...")

    if not result:
        special_truck = Truck(truck)
        del truck

        print("")
        special_truck.setArrivalMessage("A new SPECIAL icecream truck has arrived!\n")
        special_truck.arrive()
        special_truck.addIcecreamFlavor(Icecream("SPECIAL *magical* icecream"))
        special_truck.printAvailableFlavors()
        special_truck.deliver()
        print("Now everyone got the flavor they wanted!")
        special_truck.leave()

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
在制作过程中可能遇到很多问题:
问题1:遇到一些编译器问题,环境变量设置不对,调用不到自己需要的编译器,这个一般是出现在生成makefile的过程中出现,找出你电脑中安装的vs等编译器中vcvars32.bat,这种批量处理的脚本,在控制台执行就会帮助你配置一些库和exe的调用。

问题2:解析xml或者是.h时候出错。.h问题一般是没有在cmake中设置包含,或者是没有包含相关文件夹。
xml问题可能会找不到shiboken,那就是可能电脑没有安装shiboken2_generator的生成器。
生成过程中需要暴露的东西,需要在xml说明。bindings.h包含相关头文件.
https://download.qt.io/official_releases/QtForPython/shiboken2-generator/
这个链接是生成器的下载路径,选择对于版本。
xml头绑定的一些规则:
http://pyside.github.io/docs/api-extractor/typesystem.html
生成器的一些参数设置:http://pyside.github.io/docs/shiboken/

上面需要安装的东西:最基本的,pyside2,shiboken,cmake,shiboken2_generator,vs或者其他编译器.
上面例子可在你安装的D:\PyThon3.5\Lib\site-packages\PySide2\examples\samplebinding

下一篇记录一下封装qt的例子。

源文件下载:https://download.csdn.net/download/dreamsongo/11259578

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 


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